The John Von Neumann Model

John Von Neumann was a mathematics and physics professor at Princeton University. In 1944 he joined the ENIAC project and in 1945 Von Neumann developed a system, a basic principle, which every computing device uses to this day. The idea is that the system consists of a processing unit which contains an arithmetic logic unit, a control unit, and a memory unit. The system takes an input and after processing it, it produces and output. This revolutionary concept makes John Von Neumann, in a sense, the father of modern computing.

Transistors and Integrated Circuits

In 1948, Dr. John Bardeen, Dr. Walter Brattain and Dr. William Shockley created a device capable to replace the widely used but costly and inefficient vacuum tubes in computers, the transistor. A transistor is a device that quickly switches its electrical conductivity and it is perfect for represeting 0's and 1's, 0 meaning no current flow and 1 meaning full current flow. The transistor is said to be the most important invention of the 20th century.

Digital Computers and Networks

Now, with John Von Neumann's computer architecture principles and the revolutionary transistor, scientists combined this knowledge and technology to create the digital computers we know today. A prototype of a transistorised computer was created in 1953 by Richard Grimsdale and Douglas Webb at Manchester University, the "Manchester TC". With digital computers being invented, scientists started researching a way to connect individual computers in order to communicate with one another. This is how the idea of Computer Networking was born.

ARPANET

ARPANET stands for Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. It was a computer network originally created in 1969 by the United States military. ARPANET would later cease to exist, but it will be the foundation of the Internet as we know it today. In addition, ARPANET first implemented most of the techniques and protocols used in networking, such as packet switching and TCP/IP.